The Islamic World in Ascendancy: From the Arab Conquests to the Siege of Vienna
Then he sent Guyuk back to continue the conquest of Europe. Some historians believe only his death prevented the complete conquest of Europe. But they could not succeed in completing their conquest due to climate and number of the Song troops. However, Ogedei's son Khochu died in the process. In , Ogedei's another son Khuden dispatched a subsidiary expedition to Tibet. The situation between the two nations worsened when the Song officers murdered Ogedei's envoys headed by Selmus. In winter the Mongol force invaded the Indus valley and besieged Lahore.
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Dayir died storming the town, however, on December 30, , and the Mongols butchered the town before withdrawing from the Delhi Sultanate. Some time after another Mongol force invaded Kashmir, stationing a darughachi there for several years. And Kashmir became Mongolian dependency. Around the same time, a Kashmiri Buddhist master, Otochi, and his brother Namo arrived at the court of Ogedei.
Administration Ogedei began bureaucratization of Mongol administration. Three culture constituted his administration: the Christian eastern Turks, represented by Chinqai, the Uyghur scribe and the Keraits. Mahamud Yalavach promoted a system in which the government would delegate tax collection to tax farmers who collect payments in silver.
Yelu Chucai encouraged Ogedei to institute a traditional Chinese system of government, with taxation in the hands of government agents, and payment in a government issued currency. The Muslim merchants, working with capital supplied by the Mongol aristocrats, loaned at higher interest the silver needed for tax payments. At the same time the Mongols began circulating paper currency backed by silver reserves.
He also divided the empire into Beshbalik administration, Yanjing administration while the Headquarter in Karakorum directly dealt with Manchuria, Mongolia and Siberia. Late in his reign, Amu Darya administration was established. Ogedei appointed Shigi Khutugh chief judge in China. In Iran, Ogedei appointed first Chin-temur, a Kara-kitai, and then Korguz, an Uyghur who proved to be honest administrator.
Later, some of Yelu Chucai's duties were transferred to Mahamud Yalavach and taxes were handed over to Abd-ur-Rahman, who promised to double the annual payments of silver. The Ortoq or partner merchants lent Ogedei's money at exorbitant rates of interest to the peasants, however, Ogedei considerably banned higher rates. Despite it proved profitable, many people fled their homes to avoid the tax collectors and their strong-arm gangs.
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Ogedei had imperial princes tutored by the Christian scribe Qadaq and the Taoist priest Li Zhichang and built schools and academy. Ogedei Khan also decreed to issue paper currency backed by silk reserves and founded a Department which was responsible for destroying old notes. Yelu Chucai protested to Ogedei that his large-scale distribution of appanages in Iran, Western and North China, and Khorazm, could lead to a disintegration of the Empire. Ogedei thus decreed that the Mongol nobles could appoint overseers in the appanages, but the court would appoint other officials and collect taxes.
The Khagan proclaimed the Great Yassa as integral body of precedents, confirming the continuing validity of his father's commands and ordinances, while adding his own. Ogedei codified rules of dress, conduct during the kurultais.
Throughout the Empire, in , he created postroad stations Yam with a permanent staff who would supply post riders' needs. Relay station were were set up every 25 miles and the yam staff supplied remounts to the envoys and served specified rations on them. The attached households were exempt from other taxes but they had to pay a qubchuri tax to supply the goods. Ogedei ordered Chagatai and Batu to control their yams separately.
The Khagan prohibited the nobility from issuing paizas tablet that gave the bearer authority to demand goods and services from civilian populations and jarliqs. Ogedei decreed that within decimal units one out of every sheep of the well-off should be levied for the poor of the unit, and that one sheep and one mare from every herd should be forwarded to form a herd for the imperial table.
Karakorum From Ogedei constructed a series of palaces and pavilions at stopping places in his annual nomadic route through central Mongolia.
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The first palace Wanangong was constructed by North Chinese artisans. The Emperor urged his relatives build residences nearby and settled the deported craftsmen from China near the site. Earthen walls with 4 gates surrounded a city. Attached were private apartments, while in front of stood a giant stone tortoise bearing an engraved pillar, like those that were commonly used in East Asia.
There was a castle with doors like the gates of the garden and a series of lakes wherein many water fowl used to gather. Ogedei erected several houses of worship for his Buddhist, Muslim, Taoist, and Christian followers. In the Chinese ward, there was a Confucian temple where Yelu Chucai used to create or regulate a calendar on the Chinese model. Character He was considered to be his father's favorite son, ever since his childhood. He was a physically big, jovial and very charismatic man, who seemed mostly to be interested in enjoying good times.
He was intelligent and steady in character. His charisma was partially credited for his success in keeping the Mongol Empire on the path that his father had set. To encourage trade caravans he paid extremely high prices for all manner of goods whether he needed them or not. Ogedei squandered much of his wealth, passing out pearls, golds, coins and other precious stones to the people. The constant outflow from the Imperial treasury had to be made up by taxes, principally on North China.
Ogedei kept peace among his family, criticizing his son and Chagatai's grandson. The sudden death of Tolui seems to have affected him deeply. According to some sources, Tolui sacrificed his own life, having a drink in pagan ritual in order to save Ogedei who was suffering from illness.
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Ogedei fell victim to alcoholism. Chagatai entrusted an official to watch his habit, but Ogedei managed to drink anyway. When he died at dawn on December 11, , after a late-night drinking bout with Abd-ur-Rahman, the people blamed the sister of Tolui's widow and Abd-ur-Rahman. The Mongol aristocrats recognized, however, that the Khagan's own lack of self control had killed him. He was the Emperor Khagan but not a dictator. Like all Mongols at his time, he was raised and educated as a warrior from childhood, and as the son of Genghis Khan he was a part of his father's plan to establish a world empire.
His military experience was notable for his willingness to listen to his generals, and adapt to the circumstances. He was an extremely pragmatic person, much like his father, and looked at the end, rather than the means. His steadiness of character and dependability were the traits that his father most valued, and that gained him the role of successor to his father, despite his two older brothers.
It was not until , well into the reign of Mongke Khan, that Batu felt secure enough to again prepare to invade Europe. Fortunately for the Europeans, he died before his plans could be implemented. Children Ogedei had many khatuns and concubines. Ogedei married first Borakchin and then Toregene. Other wives included Mukha and Jachin.
Ferdinand renounced his claim to the Kingdom of Hungary and was forced to pay a fixed yearly sum to the Sultan for the Hungarian lands he continued to control. Of more symbolic importance, the treaty referred to Charles V not as 'Emperor', but in rather plainer terms as the 'King of Spain', leading Suleiman to consider himself the true 'Caesar'. With his main European rivals subdued, Suleiman had assured the Ottoman Empire a powerful role in the political landscape of Europe. Main article: Ottoman—Safavid War —   Miniature depicting Suleiman marching with an army in Nakhchivan , summer As Suleiman stabilized his European frontiers, he now turned his attention to the ever present threat posed by the Shi'a Safavid dynasty of Persia.
Two events in particular were to precipitate a recurrence of tensions. First, Shah Tahmasp had the Baghdad governor loyal to Suleiman killed and replaced with an adherent of the Shah, and second, the governor of Bitlis had defected and sworn allegiance to the Safavids.
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Having joined Ibrahim in , Suleiman made a push towards Persia, only to find the Shah sacrificing territory instead of facing a pitched battle, resorting to harassment of the Ottoman army as it proceeded along the harsh interior. Painting by Hans Eworth.
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Attempting to defeat the Shah once and for all, Suleiman embarked upon a second campaign in — As in the previous attempt, Tahmasp avoided confrontation with the Ottoman army and instead chose to retreat, using scorched earth tactics in the process and exposing the Ottoman army to the harsh winter of the Caucasus. Having initially lost territories in Erzurum to the Shah's son, Suleiman retaliated by recapturing Erzurum, crossing the Upper Euphrates and laying waste to parts of Persia.
The Shah's army continued its strategy of avoiding the Ottomans, leading to a stalemate from which neither army made any significant gain.
In , a settlement was signed which was to conclude Suleiman's Asian campaigns.